Discord and collaboration: essays on international politics. Front Cover. Arnold Wolfers. Johns Hopkins University Press, – Political Science – pages. Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics. Front Cover. Arnold Wolfers. Johns Hopkins Press, – International relations – pages. Title, Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics. Author, Arnold Wolfers. Edition, reprint. Publisher, Johns Hopkins Press, Export Citation.

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Moreover, any government exposed to the pressures of public opin- ion is embarrassed if the amical relations it is seeking to maintain with another country are contradicted by public expressions of hos- tility.

In contrast, diplomatic postures of amity and enmity do not depend on emotional conditions and may in fact contradict them. Nonaligned countries seek to avoid not only conflict but also commitments for common and co-operative action. While traditionally neutral democratic countries like Sweden or Switzerland may uphold the principle that the public is free to express its private sentiments and need not, like the government, abstain from partisanship, they nevertheless are often led to counsel moderation in public expressions of opinions and feelings that might interfere with a policy of amity.

Nothing of the kind is intended here. Snyder and Glenn D. It may be a threat to national independence In one instance, while merely the loss of an increment of security or of economic advantage in another.

Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics by Arnold Wolfers

Andreea Olga marked it as to-read Mar 01, Under these circumstances, they may forfeit an immediate national gain for the sake of sustaining the rule of law with its long-run benefits. There is one difference, however: The relevant section is as follows: The living world does not fit into any such simple mold.

Under these circumstances, it would be reasonable to expect and predict that a rush to fill the gap would ensue. Moreover, the whole balancing process between the two antagonists, with its tremendous impact on world events, would drop from sight if attention were devoted exclusively to indi- viduals or groups of individuals and to their psychological reactions.

The inherent shortcomings of all generalized knowledge have led many practitioners of statecraft to conclude, whether with resigna- tion or with glee, that the only sensible way to deal with their problems is to “play it by ear” and to rely on their hunches.

As a result, people who think exclusively in terms of private Individuals and who experience harmonious rela- tionships with citizens of “hostile” countries are inclined to see nothing but unhappy misunderstanding, if not evil, in the way gov- ernments act toward one another.

The real question is whether internal and external pressures are strong enough everywhere and at all times to trans- form the actors into something like automatons lacking all freedom of choice. Co-operation may arise from a desire to improve relations within the co-operating group, in which case the interest is turned Inward and is inde- pendent of threats from outside the group. There are those who claim that too great an emphasis on the role of states and their interests in power, prestige, territory, and the like, will divert polit- ical action from the satisfaction of the common man’s real needs and desires to the service of the few who can parade their interests as those of the nation.

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One example will serve to show what insight may be gained by applying the states-as-actors and the individuals-as-actors approaches simultaneously. Both sides conceive of the issue at stake not as unique but as one of a category of analogous cases.

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Nations intent upon keeping their involvement in international conflicts at a minimum are inclined to consider their survival at stake only when their own territory comes under the threat of attack or actually is attacked. When this happens these leaders place their states in the service of the transnational cause of abolishing Western colonial rule everywhere.

The Soviet estimate of American discofd to acts of the U. It would be disastrous arnild they sought instead to build on the quicksands of emotion, especially today when emotions are at the mercy of mass media of communication and of high-powered propaganda. There is no way of proving, however, that the Soviet Union while claiming to promote the cause of international Communism actually consents to sacrifices that would not be justified by the way in which its leaders interpret the Soviet national interest.

A statesman accustomed to analyzing international politics in terms alone of state behavior will treat the United Nations differently from one who believes in the rise of international organizations to a place of independent control over world disvord similar to that control exerted by states. It has been argued that it is incompatible with the essence of national statehood to devote efforts to the creation of a “better world for all to live in.

What he has writ- ten is important today, and likely to be of lasting significance. Arnopd statesmen may give expression to hopes or ideals of their people, but these hopes do not, thereby, become discorv properly can be called policy wolferrs. Hiroshima, as we said earlier, requires little if any decision-making analysis to explain the American action.

The actors in international politics — Amity and enmity among nations — The determinants of foreign policy — Statesmanship and moral choice — The goals of foreign policy — The collabodation of power and the pole of indifference — Power and influence: Complacency no less than hysteria, and willingness to demand sacrifices no less than desire for popularity, affect the interpretation men give to what the “necessity of state” requires.

By definition, the stage is pre- empted by a set of collaborztion, each in full control of all wlfers, men, and resources within its boundaries. The Actors in International Politics 21 If the states of today are not monolithic blocsand none but the totalitarian states are groups, parties, factions, and all sorts of other politically organized groups within such states can take a hand In matters transcending national boundaries.


In losing sight of the individuals who comprise a state, exponents of the states-as- actors theory may come up with a relatively accurate analysis of national behavior in a period when value patterns remain static, but they are more likely to be mistaken in a period of upheaval when elites and values undergo rapid and radical change.

Yet, this does not collaborarion follow, because nations lining up in the UN voting process risk being counted on the side of one or the other disputant.

There also has been a marked increase in the power over men that can be exercised in the name of the state. The Soviet leaders themselves may not be able to distinguish between their national goals and their revolutionary or universalist goals because abd since Lenin declared Russia to be the “Fatherland of the Revolution” they have been able to claim, sometimes to the dismay of Communists abroad, that what was good for Russia–and only what was good for Russia–was good for Communism.

The E-mail Address es you entered is are not in a valid format. Both demanded that attention be focused on individual human beings as xiscord. No deviations from the states-as-actors or billiard ball model are conceivable unless it is unrealistic to assume that men identify themselves completely and exclusively with their woflers nation- states, an assumption that excludes the possibility of nonstate cor- porate actors’ exerting any influence of international significance.

Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics

One can distinguish goals pertaining, respectively, to national possessions and to the shape of the environment in which the nation operates.

Since World War II, for example, West Germany and France have at times been close to the pole of complete and even hostile separateness; but at other times they have been drawn so closely together that a merger of the two into a single European Union appeared a practical possibility.

Here again, even with no knowledge about the individuals in question, behavior could be explained or predicted by reference to a general trait of human nature the desire for benefit or enjoyment coupled with an external circumstance the opening of the ranks.

Get to Know Us. Not everything that is good for General Motors–or for the auto workers–is good for the nation, but it can be.