CATAPHORA ANAPHORA PDF
Cataphora and anaphora are the two main types of endophora–that is, reference to an item within the text itself. Anaphora cataphora, endophora. Cohesive ties – typology. Reading: Dušková, L. Studies in the English Language. Part 2. Praha: Karolinum, Chapter Anaphora and Cataphora. LG. Loreto Garrido. Updated 10 November Transcript. This is what Fabian said. That all men were created equally.
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He ‘s really stupid. This is what I believe: The anaphor the right gadget co-refers with a digital camera. I finally settled with a digital camera.
wnaphora And then you have 3. Complement anaphora and interpretation. Any time a given expression e. This page was last edited on 3 Julyat The Case of The Others”. In this respect, anaphors reflexive and reciprocal pronouns behave very differently from, for instance, personal pronouns. Before we get too far, there are limits to what anaphors can refer to.
A Linguistic Analysis of Hypertexts.
Anaphora and Cataphora by Loreto Garrido on Prezi
Anaphors and cataphors appear in bold, and their antecedents and postcedents are underlined:. In the theory, there anaphpra different types of centers: Both cataphora and anaphora are types of endophora.
He ‘s the biggest slob I know. Retrieved from ” https: Although 1 and 2 can both be said of a situation in which one person is studying hard to take the test for another person, only in 1 can both the studier and the person who should be taking the test can be one in the same.
Because she studied really hard, Nancy aced her test. In a second, narrower sense, the term anaphora denotes the act of referring backwards in a dialog or text, such as referring to the left when an anaphor points to its left toward its antecedent in languages that are written from left to right.
So, for example, the pronouns in the following sentences are anaphors: Quantification et anaphore discursive: The mechanism is called a Binding Condition, Binding Principle, or Binding Constraint, dependent on which side of the bed Chomsky wakes up on. In a narrower sense, anaphora is the use of an expression that depends specifically upon an antecedent expression and thus is contrasted with cataphorawhich is the use of an expression that depends upon a postcedent expression.
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So, for example, the pronouns in the following sentences are anaphors:. In the following example a, the anaphoric pronoun they refers to the children who are eating the ice-cream. That sentence is just awful. Notes pestilentialone liked this.
A listener might, for example, realize through listening to other clauses and sentences that she is a Queen because of some of her attributes or actions mentioned. Strict cross-sentence cataphora where the antecedent is an entire sentence is fairly common cross-linguistically:.
Cataphora of this sort is particularly common in formal contexts, using an anaphoric expression such as this or the following: Die Aufgabe ist einfach zu schwer. This page was last edited on 3 Julyat Corpus-based and computational approaches to discourse anaphora. Exophoric reference occurs when an expression, an exophor, refers to something that is not directly present in the linguistic context, but is rather present in the situational context. For other uses, see Anaphora.
So check this out: What mechanism could cause this? Homophoric reference occurs when a generic phrase obtains a specific meaning through knowledge of its context. Same as previous sentence, in German. So, just finding a pronoun does not mean you found an anaphor or cataphor. Until further revealed by additional contextual words, gestures, images or other mediaa listener may not even know what monarchy or historical period is being discussed, and even after hearing her name is Elizabeth does not know, even if an English-UK Queen Elizabeth becomes indicated, if this queen means Queen Elizabeth I or Queen Elizabeth II and must await further clues in additional communications.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Similarly, in discussing ‘The Mayor’ of a citythe Mayor’s identity must be understood broadly through the context which the speech references as general ‘object’ of understanding; is a particular human person meant, a current or future or past office-holder, the office in a strict legal sense, or the office in a general sense which includes activities a mayor might conduct, might even be expected to conduct, while they may not be explicitly defined for this office.
A ranked list of discourse entities in an utterance. Both semantic and pragmatics considerations attend this phenomenon, which following discourse representation theory since the early s, such as work by Kamp and Heim File Change Semantics,and generalized quantifier theorysuch as work by Barwise and Cooperwas studied in a series of psycholinguistic experiments in the early s by Moxey and Sanford and Sanford et al. A, B, C, D.
Deictic proforms are stereotypical exophors, e. Crucially, these types of words must corefer with another thing in the sentence, and the things available for coreference are limited.
Catzphora ] [ Older. Retrieved 19 May The use of the term anaphor in this narrow sense is unique to generative grammar, and in particular, to the traditional binding theory. I should have known it: When he arrived home, John went to sleep.