I. CONSTITUTION OF THE INTERNATIONAL MILITARY TRIBUNAL. Article 1. In pursuance of the Agreement signed on the 8th day of August by the. The lesser-known International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE) was . The Charter provided for MacArthur to appoint judges to the IMTFE from the. In our opinion the laws of the Charter is decisive and binding on the Tribunal. This is a special tribunal set up by the Supreme Commander under authority.

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Military Charger and International Crimes. A diary, letter or other document, including sworn or unsworn statements which appear to the Tribunal to contain information relating to the charge.

The working relationships between individual American attorneys and their Japanese counterparts were not always easy.

The twenty-eight defendants charged at the Tokyo Trial were selected following international deliberations and the final decisions were taken by an executive committee of the International Prosecution Section, chaired by Sir Arthur Comyns Carr, K.

The summations and other closing arguments continued from February 11 to April 16,when the proceedings were adjourned while the court considered its findings. Article 14 Place of trial The first trial imfe be held at Tokyo and any subsequent trials will be held at such places as the Tribunal decided.

Like the Nuremberg Trialsthe criminal procedure used by the Tokyo Trials was closer to civil law than to common lawwith a trial before a panel of judges rather than a jury trial and with wide allowance for hearsay evidence.

Tokyo Trial |

Namely, violations of the laws or customs of war; c. Print this article Print all entries for this topic Cite this article. For employees Norwegian website. The prosecution and each accused by counsel only, if represented may make a concise opening statement.

If the Control Council for Germany, after any Defendant has been convicted and sentenced, discovers fresh evidence which, in its opinion, would found a fresh charge against him, the Council shall report accordingly to the Committee established under Article 14 hereof, for such action as they may consider proper, having regard to the interests of justice. Confine the trial strictly to an expeditious hearing of the issues raised by the charges.

The first trial will be held at Tokyo and any subsequent trials will be held at such places as the Tribunal decided. The defense did not attempt to match the structure imposed by the prosecution’s case and instead offered its case in six divisions. The judgment of the Tribunal as to the guilt or the innocence of any Defendant shall give the reasons on which it is based, and shall be final and not subject to review. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.


Accordingly the Allied powers moved quickly to select their own associate counsel. To some extent the emphasis on criminal masked the fact that the charges on the indictment at Tokyo were framed before the prosecution determined who was to be tried. The Tribunal will ask each accused whether he pleads “guilty” or “not guilty.

The first variance is only in the drafting of Article 5 c of the Tokyo Charter defining crimes against humanity since the same responsibility basis exists in the Charter thought not in Article 6 c of the Nuremberg Charter. The judgment and sentences of the tribunal were confirmed by General MacArthur on November 24,two days after a perfunctory meeting at his office with members of the Allied Control Commission for Japan, who acted as the local representatives of the nations of the Far Eastern Commission set up by their governments.

Determine the mental and physical capacity of any accused to proceed to trial. Evidence relating to Korea, Manchuria, the People’s Republic of Mongolia, Thailand, Cambodia, Burma, and Portuguese possessions in East Asia was also received by the tribunal, but for legal as well as for political ones those countries or territories were not formally joined in the proceedings.

The countries taking part in the prosecution and judgment were: By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. The application shall state where the witness or document is thought to be located. Several of those who were imprisoned were released earlier on parole due to ill-health. However, one can say with a degree of certainty that no Japanese war criminal will ever again be tried on indictment in a Japanese court for crimes related to the period before and during World War II.

Article 1 Tribunal established The International Military Tribunal for the Far East is hereby established for the just and prompt trial and punishment of the major war criminals in the Far East. The first meetings of the members of the Tribunal and of the Chief Prosecutors shall be held at Berlin in a place to be designated by the Control Council for Germany.

The Case of General Yamashita. At Tokyo, the Americans faced far greater difficulties in extracting documentary evidence from the Japanese government, which continued to function and frequently obstructed them, and so the Americans were less successful in controlling the flow of information to the other national delegations and to the tribunal. Modern Language Association http: In the end, however, it was not until Christmas Eve,that a formal announcement was issued that the last of the nineteen individuals who might have been expected to figure in further proceedings before the IMTFE were to be released rather than face trial.


Web editors at Faculty of Law.

It was held in far less esteem as a weapon in the arsenal of public prosecutors elsewhere. The court’s powers were limited strictly by the terms of the charter and rules of procedure of the Tokyo Trial. The decision to release these men was taken as a purely political act and had nothing much to do with the merits of their individual cases.

In Germany, for example, each of the Allied powers held trials for alleged war criminals found within their respective zones of occupation. These subsequent trials, however, were not held imtce international tribunals but instead by domestic courts or by tribunals operated by a single Allied power, such as military commissions.

If the Tribunal grants the application the Tribunal shall be given such aid in obtaining production of the evidence as the circumstances require.

Tokyo Charter

The prosecution may address the Chsrter. The judgment will be announced in open court and will give the reasons on which it is based. It shall also state the facts proposed to be proved by the witness of the document and the relevancy of such facts to the defence. The defense in Tokyo retraced much of the ground covered by the prosecution and went on to explore virtually the whole history of Japan’s twentieth-century constitutional, social, political, and international history up to the end of World War II.

The initial intention of the Allied powers was to hold further international military tribunals in both Germany and Japan once the first major war crimes trials concluded.

International Military Tribunal for the Far East Charter (IMTFE Charter) – The Faculty of Law

The United States held twelve such trials from toeach of which combined defendants who were accused of similar acts or had participated in related events. Thus the conceptual framework was quite similar. The charter was issued months following the surrender of Japan on September 2,which brought World War II to an end.

Crimes against International Law. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. For each defendant a Japanese defense counsel was found to take charge of his particular case and an American co-counsel assumed what was nominally a junior role.

The use of other languages in court later became a contentious matter. At Nuremberg that impact was felt immediately and was continuous throughout the proceedings.