Slavery (Romanian: robie) existed on the territory of present-day Romania from before the ), Vasile Alecsandri also wrote a short story, Istoria unui Galbân (“History of a gold coin”, ), while Gheorghe . 99; ^ Mihail Kogălniceanu, wikisource:ro:Dezrobirea țiganilor, ștergerea privilegiilor boierești, emanciparea. Originea si istoria tiganilor: Cum au ajuns in Europa. Mihai Mircea, “Cu privire la originea si istoria tiganilor,” Revista de cercetari sociale, nr. 4/ I. Muraru, “Studii constitutionale,” Ed. Actam (Bucuresti, ).

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According to Romanian Djuvara: In the Byzantine Empirethey were slaves of the state and it seems the situation was the same in Bulgaria and Serbia until their social organization was destroyed by the Ottoman conquest, which would suggest that they came as slaves who had a change of “ownership”. As a rule, due to the precarious nature of their qualifications, the Gypsies were forced to perform unskilled and poorly paid work.

Freemium Recommend to your library for acquisition. Usually, there was no tax on privately owned slaves, excepting for a short period in Moldavia: The postal address of the institution is: Almost everywhere in the country, the Gypsies, who as a rule had previously been housed at the edge of the locality, began to penetrate the centre of the villages.

Views Read Edit View history. Some boyars freed their slaves without asking for compensation, while others strongly fought against the idea of abolition. In any case, everywhere in the world, including in Western countries, the Gypsies are regarded as a problem from the point of view of their integration into modern society. In many cases, they had not paid their rent, electricity bills etc. Anthropologist Sam Beck argues that the origins of Roma slavery can be most easily explained in the practice of taking prisoners of war as slaves, a practice with a long history in the region, and that, initially, free and enslaved Roma coexisted on what became Romanian territory.


Serious economic problems appeared in the mids, when the policy was practically speaking shelved.

Slavery in Romania

The slavery of the Roma in bordering Transylvania was found especially in the fiefs and areas under the influence of Wallachia and Moldavia, these areas keeping their practice of slavery even after they were no longer under Wallachian or Moldavian possession. Slavery, together with serfdom, was only abolished by the emancipation laws of In the s, the demographic situation became a burden on the Gypsy population. Citizens of Gypsy origin experienced iwtoria the positive and negative effects of these transformations.

There is very little available information about this programme and about the Gypsy policy applied at the end of the s and during the s. Slavery was legislated in the “Establishment of the organisation of the ttiganilor of Bessarabia” act ofby which the Roma were a social category divided into state slaves and tgianilor slaves, which belonged to boyars, clergy or traders. On the occasion, each individual over the age of 15 was required to pay a sum of between thirty and forty piastres.

The state farms, however, which faced an almost permanent shortage of labour, would offer work to Gypsies. It was only when the Phanariote regime was changed, soon afterthat Romanian society began to modernise itself and various reforms were implemented see Regulamentul Organic.

Deportarea romilor în Transnistria

In the first place, these Gypsies were those who did not adapt to the new conditions. The current situation of the gypsies roma in Romania. Even at the end of the s and the beginning of the s, when a programme of this nature did exist, the authorities did not deal with the Gypsies in a serious way. Most of them were forced to abandon the occupations that had for a long time been characteristic of them and to find their place in the communist-type economy.

While it is possible that some Romani people were slaves or auxiliary troops of the Mongols or Tatars, the bulk of them came from south of the Danube at the end of the 14th century, some time after the foundation of Wallachia.


Most of the slaves were of Roma Gypsy ethnicity.

Slavery in Romania – Wikipedia

In villages in Transylvania and the Banat that were abandoned by the ethnic Germans, many of the houses of those who had emigrated were allocated to the Gypsies of the respective locality or to Gypsies from elsewhere.

The New York Times. Desktop version Mobile version. The social integration policies were generally left to be implemented by the local authorities. The social history of the Gypsies during the years of Communism is directly linked to the social history of the country as a whole.

Sociological research carried isforia recent years shows that, as we shall see, 4 most Gypsies employed in industry or in other branches of the economy practised unskilled or semi-skilled professions. The shacks that until the s characterised the habitat of the Gypsies did not disappear, but did make up a much smaller proportion of their dwellings.

In The Roma in Romanian History.

Two villages were created in Southern BessarabiaCair and Faraonovca now both in Ukraine by settling Roma families. Forthe most plausible study evaluates the size of the Gypsies population identified as such by others according to their way of life between a minimum figure ofpersons 3.

Deportarea romilor în Transnistria – Wikipedia

For the Gypsies, particularly tent-dwelling Gypsies, who kept their wealth in the form of gold, this measure led to the loss of their principle source of wealth. The programme of social integration of the Gypsies was only partially implemented and tiganolor too short a time. Since they filled a gap that the state economy could not cover, the authorities in general tolerated them.

The adoption of Romanian or Hungarian as native language—in places where the loss of Romanes had not taken place much earlier—took place almost of its own accord.